Additional Resources

More information about copyright concepts

  • Liability and remedies
    • Generally, to establish a claim of copyright infringement, a creator or holder of copyright need only show that she has a valid copyright in the work and that the defendant copied protected expression from the work. However, the intention of the alleged infringer may be relevant in some cases, such as if the defendant asserts that an exception or limitation applied to their use or that their work was independently created.
    • The copyright laws of some countries grant copyright holders statutory remedies for infringement. The type and amounts of remedies including damages are established by law. Be aware of the existence of statutory damages and other remedies permitted by applicable law, including statutory provisions that award legal fees in some circumstances.
  • Licensing and transfer
    • Many creators and copyright holders need help to fully exercise the exclusive rights or simply give others permission to exercise the right granted by copyright law. Several options exist to do so. Some creators choose to license some or all of those rights, either exclusively or non exclusively. Others choose to sell their rights outright and allow others to exercise them in their place, sometimes in exchange for royalty payments. There are often formalities associated with the sale or licensing of copyrights, including when a copyright license must be in writing depending on the copyright law that applies.
  • Termination of copyright transfers and licenses
    • The laws of some countries grant copyright holders the right to terminate transfer agreements or licenses even if the transfer agreement or license doesn’t allow it. In the United States, for example, copyright law provides two mechanisms for doing so depending on when the transfer agreement or license became effective. For more information on these rights and a tool that allows creators and copyright holders to figure out if they have those rights, visit
  • CopyrightX by Harvard Law School.
    • This is a course on copyright provided by the Harvard Law School’s HarvardX distance learning initiative:
    • http://

More on philosophies of copyright

Philosophy of Copyright

  • Wikipedia page:

Author’s Rights

More information about limitations and exceptions to copyright

  • Fair Use Evaluator:
    • This is an online tool to help users understand how to determine the “fairness” of use
      under U.S. copyright law, and work with materials under fair use: .php.
  • Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property by American University Washington College of Law. CC BY 3.0
    • See this program’s “Publications on Fair Use” to understand the under- lying principles and best practices of fair use: fairuse/publications.
  • Copyright and Exceptions by Kennisland. CC0 1.0 Public Domain Designation
    • This is an interactive map of European copyright exceptions:
    • http://
  • A Fair(y) Use Tale by Eric Faden. CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
    • This is a creative educational fair-use mashup which ironically makes use of clips from Disney films as it explains how copyright works. The discussion of fair use begins around the 6-minute 30-second mark in the video:

More information about the public domain

  • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Cornell University Library Copyright Information Center. CC BY. 3.0.
    • This provides copyright information on when resources fall into the public domain, depending on the circumstances under which they were written:
  • Out of Copyright: Determining the Copyright Status of Works
    • This is a website to help determine the copyright status of a work and whether it has fallen into the public domain:
  • The Public Domain Manifesto by Communia. GNU General Public License
    • This is a website with information about the public domain, the values of some of its supporters, and some recommendations on how to use the public domain:
  • Center for the Study of Public Domain by Duke Law School
    • This website contains information and events regarding the public domain:
  • Bound by Law by Keith Aoki, James Boyle, and Jennifer Jenkins. CC BY-NC-SA 2.5
    • This is a comic book about intellectual property law and the public domain:
  • Public Domain Review
    • This is an online journal and not-for-profit project that showcases works which have entered the public domain. The journal is dedicated to the exploration of curious and compelling works from the history of art, literature, and ideas:
  • It’s Time to Protect the Public Domain by Wikimedia Foundation. CC BY 3.0
    • This blog post provides information on some of the important details of the public domain, its legal backing, and the public interest:
    • https://

Participant Recommended Resources

CC Certificate participants’ recommended many additional resources through annotations on the Certificate website. While Creative Commons has not vetted these resources, we wanted to highlight participant’s contributions here: